(Optional) Verify the installation

The AWS Copilot CLI executables are cryptographically signed using PGP signatures. The PGP signatures can be used to verify the validity of the AWS Copilot CLI executable. Use the following steps to verify the signatures using the GnuPG tool.

  1. Download and install GnuPG. For more information, see the GnuPG website.

    • For macOS, we recommend using Homebrew. Install Homebrew using the instructions from their website. For more information, see Homebrew. After Homebrew is installed, use the following command from your macOS terminal.
      brew install gnupg
      
    • For Linux systems, install gpg using the package manager on your flavor of Linux.
    • For Windows systems, download and use the Windows simple installer from the GnuPG website. For more information, see GnuPG Download.
  2. Retrieve the Amazon ECS PGP public key. You can use a command to do this or manually create the key and then import it.

    • Option 1: Retrieve the key with the following command.
      gpg --keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net --recv BCE9D9A42D51784F
      
    • Option 2: Create a file with the following contents of the Amazon ECS PGP public key and then import it.
      -----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
      Version: GnuPG v2
      
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      =Gi5D
      -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
      
      The details of the Amazon ECS PGP public key for reference:
      Key ID: BCE9D9A42D51784F
      Type: RSA
      Size: 4096/4096
      Expires: Never
      User ID: Amazon ECS
      Key fingerprint: F34C 3DDA E729 26B0 79BE AEC6 BCE9 D9A4 2D51 784F
      
      Import the Amazon ECS PGP public key with the following command.
      gpg --import <public_key_filename>
      
  3. Download the AWS Copilot CLI signatures. The signatures are ASCII detached PGP signatures stored in files with the extension .asc. The signatures file has the same name as its corresponding executable, with .asc appended.

    For macOS systems, run the following command.

    sudo curl -Lo copilot.asc https://github.com/aws/copilot-cli/releases/latest/download/copilot-darwin.asc

    For Linux systems, run the following command.

    sudo curl -Lo copilot.asc https://github.com/aws/copilot-cli/releases/latest/download/copilot-linux.asc

    For Windows systems, run the following command.

    Invoke-WebRequest -OutFile ecs-cli.asc https://github.com/aws/copilot-cli/releases/latest/download/copilot-windows.exe

  4. Verify the signature with the following command.

    • For macOS and Linux systems:
      gpg --verify copilot.asc /usr/local/bin/copilot
      
    • For Windows systems:
      gpg --verify ecs-cli.asc 'C:\Program Files\copilot.exe'
      

    Expected output:

    gpg: Signature made Tue Apr  3 13:29:30 2018 PDT
    gpg:                using RSA key DE3CBD61ADAF8B8E
    gpg: Good signature from "Amazon ECS <ecs-security@amazon.com>" [unknown]
    gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
    gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
    Primary key fingerprint: F34C 3DDA E729 26B0 79BE  AEC6 BCE9 D9A4 2D51 784F
         Subkey fingerprint: EB3D F841 E2C9 212A 2BD4  2232 DE3C BD61 ADAF 8B8E
    

    Warning

    The warning in the output is expected and is not problematic. It occurs because there is not a chain of trust between your personal PGP key (if you have one) and the Amazon ECS PGP key. For more information, see Web of trust.