Backend Service

List of all available properties for a 'Backend Service' manifest. To learn about Copilot services, see the Services concept page.

Sample manifest for an api service
    # Your service name will be used in naming your resources like log groups, ECS services, etc.
    name: api
    type: Backend Service

    # Your service is reachable at "http://api.${COPILOT_SERVICE_DISCOVERY_ENDPOINT}:8080" but is not public.

    # Configuration for your containers and service.
      build: ./api/Dockerfile
      port: 8080
        command: ["CMD-SHELL", "curl -f http://localhost:8080 || exit 1"]
        interval: 10s
        retries: 2
        timeout: 5s
        start_period: 0s

    cpu: 256
    memory: 512
    count: 1
    exec: true

          path: '/etc/mount1'
          read_only: true
            id: fs-12345678
            root_dir: '/'
              iam: true
              access_point_id: fsap-12345678

        placement: 'private'
        security_groups: ['sg-05d7cd12cceeb9a6e']

      LOG_LEVEL: info
    env_file: log.env

    # You can override any of the values defined above by environment.
          rolling: "recreate"
          spot: 2
        count: 2

name String The name of your service.

type String
The architecture type for your service. Backend Services are not reachable from the internet, but can be reached with service discovery from your other services.

http Map
The http section contains parameters related to integrating your service with an internal Application Load Balancer.

http.path String
Requests to this path will be forwarded to your service. Each Backend Service should listen on a unique path.

http.healthcheck String or Map If you specify a string, Copilot interprets it as the path exposed in your container to handle target group health check requests. The default is "/".

  healthcheck: '/'
You can also specify healthcheck as a map:
    path: '/'
    port: 8080
    success_codes: '200'
    healthy_threshold: 3
    unhealthy_threshold: 2
    interval: 15s
    timeout: 10s
    grace_period: 60s

http.healthcheck.path String
The destination that the health check requests are sent to.

http.healthcheck.port Integer The port that the health check requests are sent to. The default is image.port, or the port exposed by http.target_container, if set.

http.healthcheck.success_codes String
The HTTP status codes that healthy targets must use when responding to an HTTP health check. You can specify values between 200 and 499. You can specify multiple values (for example, "200,202") or a range of values (for example, "200-299"). The default is 200.

http.healthcheck.healthy_threshold Integer
The number of consecutive health check successes required before considering an unhealthy target healthy. The default is 5. Range: 2-10.

http.healthcheck.unhealthy_threshold Integer
The number of consecutive health check failures required before considering a target unhealthy. The default is 2. Range: 2-10.

http.healthcheck.interval Duration
The approximate amount of time, in seconds, between health checks of an individual target. The default is 30s. Range: 5s–300s.

http.healthcheck.timeout Duration
The amount of time, in seconds, during which no response from a target means a failed health check. The default is 5s. Range 5s-300s.

http.healthcheck.grace_period Duration
The amount of time to ignore failing target group healthchecks on container start. The default is 60s. This can be useful to fix deployment issues for containers which take a while to become healthy and begin listening for incoming connections, or to speed up deployment of containers guaranteed to start quickly.

http.deregistration_delay Duration
The amount of time to wait for targets to drain connections during deregistration. The default is 60s. Setting this to a larger value gives targets more time to gracefully drain connections, but increases the time required for new deployments. Range 0s-3600s.

http.target_container String
A sidecar container that takes the place of a service container.

http.stickiness Boolean
Indicates whether sticky sessions are enabled.

http.allowed_source_ips Array of Strings
CIDR IP addresses permitted to access your service.

  allowed_source_ips: ["", ""]

http.alias String or Array of Strings or Array of Maps
HTTPS domain alias of your service.

# String version.
# Alternatively, as an array of strings.
  alias: ["", ""]
# Alternatively, as an array of maps.
    - name:
      hosted_zone: Z0873220N255IR3MTNR4
    - name:
      hosted_zone: AN0THE9H05TED20NEID
http.hosted_zone String
ID of existing private hosted zone, into which Copilot will insert the alias record once the internal load balancer is created, mapping the alias name to the LB's DNS name. Must be used with alias.
  hosted_zone: Z0873220N255IR3MTNR4
# Also see http.alias array of maps example, above.
http.version String
The HTTP(S) protocol version. Must be one of 'grpc', 'http1', or 'http2'. If omitted, then 'http1' is assumed. If using gRPC, please note that a domain must be associated with your application.

image Map
The image section contains parameters relating to the Docker build configuration and exposed port. String or Map
Build a container from a Dockerfile with optional arguments. Mutually exclusive with image.location.

If you specify a string, Copilot interprets it as the path to your Dockerfile. It will assume that the dirname of the string you specify should be the build context. The manifest:

  build: path/to/dockerfile
will result in the following call to docker build: $ docker build --file path/to/dockerfile path/to

You can also specify build as a map:

    dockerfile: path/to/dockerfile
    context: context/dir
    target: build-stage
      - image:tag
      key: value
In this case, Copilot will use the context directory you specified and convert the key-value pairs under args to --build-arg overrides. The equivalent docker build call will be: $ docker build --file path/to/dockerfile --target build-stage --cache-from image:tag --build-arg key=value context/dir.

You can omit fields and Copilot will do its best to understand what you mean. For example, if you specify context but not dockerfile, Copilot will run Docker in the context directory and assume that your Dockerfile is named "Dockerfile." If you specify dockerfile but no context, Copilot assumes you want to run Docker in the directory that contains dockerfile.

All paths are relative to your workspace root.

image.location String
Instead of building a container from a Dockerfile, you can specify an existing image name. Mutually exclusive with The location field follows the same definition as the image parameter in the Amazon ECS task definition.


If you are passing in a Windows image, you must add platform: windows/x86_64 to your manifest.
If you are passing in an ARM architecture-based image, you must add platform: linux/arm64 to your manifest.

image.credentials String
An optional credentials ARN for a private repository. The credentials field follows the same definition as the credentialsParameter in the Amazon ECS task definition.

image.labels Map
An optional key/value map of Docker labels to add to the container.

image.depends_on Map
An optional key/value map of Container Dependencies to add to the container. The key of the map is a container name and the value is the condition to depend on. Valid conditions are: start, healthy, complete, and success. You cannot specify a complete or success dependency on an essential container.

For example:

  build: ./Dockerfile
    nginx: start
    startup: success
In the above example, the task's main container will only start after the nginx sidecar has started and the startup container has completed successfully.

image.port Integer
The port exposed in your Dockerfile. Copilot should parse this value for you from your EXPOSE instruction.

image.healthcheck Map
Optional configuration for container health checks.

image.healthcheck.command Array of Strings
The command to run to determine if the container is healthy. The string array can start with CMD to execute the command arguments directly, or CMD-SHELL to run the command with the container's default shell.

image.healthcheck.interval Duration
Time period between health checks, in seconds. Default is 10s.

image.healthcheck.retries Integer
Number of times to retry before container is deemed unhealthy. Default is 2.

image.healthcheck.timeout Duration
How long to wait before considering the health check failed, in seconds. Default is 5s.

image.healthcheck.start_period Duration
Length of grace period for containers to bootstrap before failed health checks count towards the maximum number of retries. Default is 0s.

cpu Integer
Number of CPU units for the task. See the Amazon ECS docs for valid CPU values.

memory Integer
Amount of memory in MiB used by the task. See the Amazon ECS docs for valid memory values.

platform String or Map
Operating system and architecture (formatted as [os]/[arch]) to pass with docker build --platform. For example, linux/arm64 or windows/x86_64. The default is linux/x86_64.

Override the generated string to build with a different valid osfamily or architecture. For example, Windows users might change the string

platform: windows/x86_64
which defaults to WINDOWS_SERVER_2019_CORE, using a map:
  osfamily: windows_server_2019_full
  architecture: x86_64

count Integer or Map
If you specify a number:

count: 5
The service will set the desired count to 5 and maintain 5 tasks in your service. Integer

If you want to use Fargate Spot capacity to run your services, you can specify a number under the spot subfield:

  spot: 5


Fargate Spot is not supported for containers running on ARM architecture.

Alternatively, you can specify a map for setting up autoscaling:

  range: 1-10
  cpu_percentage: 70
  memory_percentage: 80

count.range String or Map
You can specify a minimum and maximum bound for the number of tasks your service should maintain, based on the values you specify for the metrics.

  range: n-m
This will set up an Application Autoscaling Target with the MinCapacity of n and MaxCapacity of m.

Alternatively, if you wish to scale your service onto Fargate Spot instances, specify min and max under range and then specify spot_from with the desired count you wish to start placing your services onto Spot capacity. For example:

    min: 1
    max: 10
    spot_from: 3

This will set your range as 1-10 as above, but will place the first two copies of your service on dedicated Fargate capacity. If your service scales to 3 or higher, the third and any additional copies will be placed on Spot until the maximum is reached.

range.min Integer
The minimum desired count for your service using autoscaling.

range.max Integer
The maximum desired count for your service using autoscaling.

range.spot_from Integer
The desired count at which you wish to start placing your service using Fargate Spot capacity providers.

count.cpu_percentage Integer
Scale up or down based on the average CPU your service should maintain.

count.memory_percentage Integer
Scale up or down based on the average memory your service should maintain.

count.requests Integer Scale up or down based on the request count handled per task.

count.response_time Duration Scale up or down based on the service average response time.

exec Boolean
Enable running commands in your container. The default is false. Required for $ copilot svc exec.

deployment Map
The deployment section contains parameters to control how many tasks run during the deployment and the ordering of stopping and starting tasks.

deployment.rolling String
Rolling deployment strategy. Valid values are

  • "default": Creates new tasks as many as the desired count with the updated task definition, before stopping the old tasks. Under the hood, this translates to setting the minimumHealthyPercent to 100 and maximumPercent to 200.
  • "recreate": Stop all running tasks and then spin up new tasks. Under the hood, this translates to setting the minimumHealthyPercent to 0 and maximumPercent to 100.

entrypoint String or Array of Strings
Override the default entrypoint in the image.

# String version.
entrypoint: "/bin/entrypoint --p1 --p2"
# Alteratively, as an array of strings.
entrypoint: ["/bin/entrypoint", "--p1", "--p2"]

command String or Array of Strings
Override the default command in the image.

# String version.
command: ps au
# Alteratively, as an array of strings.
command: ["ps", "au"]

network Map
The network section contains parameters for connecting to AWS resources in a VPC.

network.vpc Map
Subnets and security groups attached to your tasks.

network.vpc.placement String or Map
When using it as a string, the value must be one of 'public' or 'private'. Defaults to launching your tasks in public subnets.


If you launch tasks in 'private' subnets and use a Copilot-generated VPC, Copilot will automatically add NAT Gateways to your environment for internet connectivity. (See pricing.) Alternatively, when running copilot env init, you can import an existing VPC with NAT Gateways, or one with VPC endpoints for isolated workloads. See our custom environment resources page for more.

When using it as a map, you can specify in which subnets Copilot should launch ECS tasks. For example:

      subnets: ["SubnetID1", "SubnetID2"]

network.vpc.placement.subnets Array of Strings
A list of subnet IDs where Copilot launches ECS tasks.

network.vpc.security_groups Array of Strings
Additional security group IDs associated with your tasks. Copilot always includes a security group so containers within your environment can communicate with each other.

variables Map
Key-value pairs that represent environment variables that will be passed to your service. Copilot will include a number of environment variables by default for you.

env_file String
The path to a file from the root of your workspace containing the environment variables to pass to the main container. For more information about the environment variable file, see Considerations for specifying environment variable files.

secrets Map
Key-value pairs that represent secret values from AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store or AWS Secrets Manager that will be securely passed to your service as environment variables.

storage Map
The Storage section lets you specify external EFS volumes for your containers and sidecars to mount. This allows you to access persistent storage across availability zones in a region for data processing or CMS workloads. For more detail, see the storage page. You can also specify extensible ephemeral storage at the task level.

storage.ephemeral Int
Specify how much ephemeral task storage to provision in GiB. The default value and minimum is 20 GiB. The maximum size is 200 GiB. Sizes above 20 GiB incur additional charges.

To create a shared filesystem context between an essential container and a sidecar, you can use an empty volume:

  ephemeral: 100
      path: /var/data
      read_only: false

      - source_volume: scratch
        path: /var/data
        read_only: false
This example will provision 100 GiB of storage to be shared between the sidecar and the task container. This can be useful for large datasets, or for using a sidecar to transfer data from EFS into task storage for workloads with high disk I/O requirements.

storage.volumes Map
Specify the name and configuration of any EFS volumes you would like to attach. The volumes field is specified as a map of the form:

  <volume name>:
    path: "/etc/mountpath"

storage.volumes.volume Map
Specify the configuration of a volume.

volume.path String
Required. Specify the location in the container where you would like your volume to be mounted. Must be fewer than 242 characters and must consist only of the characters a-zA-Z0-9.-_/.

volume.read_only Boolean
Optional. Defaults to true. Defines whether the volume is read-only or not. If false, the container is granted elasticfilesystem:ClientWrite permissions to the filesystem and the volume is writable.

volume.efs Boolean or Map
Specify more detailed EFS configuration. If specified as a boolean, or using only the uid and gid subfields, creates a managed EFS filesystem and dedicated Access Point for this workload.

// Simple managed EFS
efs: true

// Managed EFS with custom POSIX info
  uid: 10000
  gid: 110000 String
Required. The ID of the filesystem you would like to mount.

volume.efs.root_dir String
Optional. Defaults to /. Specify the location in the EFS filesystem you would like to use as the root of your volume. Must be fewer than 255 characters and must consist only of the characters a-zA-Z0-9.-_/. If using an access point, root_dir must be either empty or / and auth.iam must be true.

volume.efs.uid Uint32
Optional. Must be specified with gid. Mutually exclusive with root_dir, auth, and id. The POSIX UID to use for the dedicated access point created for the managed EFS filesystem.

volume.efs.gid Uint32
Optional. Must be specified with uid. Mutually exclusive with root_dir, auth, and id. The POSIX GID to use for the dedicated access point created for the managed EFS filesystem.

volume.efs.auth Map
Specify advanced authorization configuration for EFS.

volume.efs.auth.iam Boolean
Optional. Defaults to true. Whether or not to use IAM authorization to determine whether the volume is allowed to connect to EFS.

volume.efs.auth.access_point_id String
Optional. Defaults to "". The ID of the EFS access point to connect to. If using an access point, root_dir must be either empty or / and auth.iam must be true.

publish Map
The publish section allows services to publish messages to one or more SNS topics.

    - name: orderEvents

In the example above, this manifest declares an SNS topic named orderEvents that other worker services deployed to the Copilot environment can subscribe to. An environment variable named COPILOT_SNS_TOPIC_ARNS is injected into your workload as a JSON string.

In JavaScript, you could write:

const {orderEvents} = JSON.parse(process.env.COPILOT_SNS_TOPIC_ARNS)
For more details, see the pub/sub page.

publish.topics Array of topics
List of topic objects.

publish.topics.topic Map
Holds configuration for a single SNS topic. String
Required. The name of the SNS topic. Must contain only upper and lowercase letters, numbers, hyphens, and underscores.

logging Map
The logging section contains log configuration. You can also configure parameters for your container's FireLens log driver in this section (see examples here).

logging.retention Integer
Optional. The number of days to retain the log events. See this page for all accepted values. If omitted, the default is 30.

logging.image Map
Optional. The Fluent Bit image to use. Defaults to

logging.destination Map
Optional. The configuration options to send to the FireLens log driver.

logging.enableMetadata Map
Optional. Whether to include ECS metadata in logs. Defaults to true.

logging.secretOptions Map
Optional. The secrets to pass to the log configuration.

logging.configFilePath Map
Optional. The full config file path in your custom Fluent Bit image.

observability Map
The observability section lets you configure ways to measure your service's current state. Currently, only tracing configuration is supported.

For more details, see the observability page.

observability.tracing String
The vendor to use for tracing. Currently, only awsxray is supported.

taskdef_overrides Array of Rules
The taskdef_overrides section allows users to apply overriding rules to their ECS Task Definitions (see examples here).

taskdef_overrides.path String Required. Path to the Task Definition field to override.

taskdef_overrides.value Any Required. Value of the Task Definition field to override.

environments Map
The environment section lets you override any value in your manifest based on the environment you're in. In the example manifest above, we're overriding the count parameter so that we can run 2 copies of our service in our 'prod' environment, and 2 copies using Fargate Spot capacity in our 'staging' environment.